"Henry Whitney, b. at 25 Pearl St., New York, 23 Aug. 1812; was graduated at Yale College in 1830, and settled in New Haven, Conn., in 1837, where he continued to reside until his death, living for a year in "Maple Cottage", Trumbull Street, until the fine mansion which he built for himself on Whitney Avenue (now occupied by his son Stephen) was completed; married, 27 Jan. 1835, by Rev. Dr. Lyell, at the residence of her parents, 498 Broadway, N. Y., to Hannah Eugenia Lawrence, born in New York, 27 Jan. 1815, dau. of Isaac Lawrence and his wife Anna, dau. of Rev. Abraham Beach, D. D., minister of Trinity Church, New York. She died, 16 March 1844, in New Haven, and was buried in the New Haven Cemetery. He married (2d), 25 July 1850, at Norwich, Conn., Maria Lucy Fitch; and died in New Haven, 21 March 1856, and was buried in the New Haven Cemetery. . . . . She married (2d), 20 Nov. 1862, at New York, Nathan Adolphus Baldwin, of Milford, Conn., where they resided in June 1877. They have one child, Natalie Augusta Baldwin, born at Milford, 26 Dec. 1864."

"The History of the Old Town of Derby, Connecticut 1642-1880" by Samuel Orcut t and Ambrose Beardsley, M.D. 1880 p779 "Stephen..was a merchant in New York city..He died Fe b 16, 1860; buried in Greenwood, of which cemetery he was one of the original incorporators , and a director through his life. He went to New York when 18 or 20 years of age, having had only ordinary advantages at Derby, and engaged himself as clerk to the firm of Lawrence and Whitney, shippers, in which his brother Henry was a partner. By energy and business talent he soon acquired means to enter copartnership with John Currie, a Scotchman, in the wholesale grocery trade. He traded largely in wines, then in cotton, then engaged in ship-building and the shipping trade to nearly all parts of the world; then in canals and railroads, and finally in banks, accumulating great wealth."

He set himself in business as a liquor retailer and later wholesaler in 1805 at Nr 4 Stone Street, New York. Stephen Whitney's fortune grew heavily thanks to some large and fortunate speculations in cotton. In the 1830's he was among New York's richest men. His fortune was doubled by shrewd investments in city real estate. Second in wealth to John Jacob Astor, Whitney's fortune was estimated between 5-10'000'000 dollars at its height.


Webster Family Genealogy    Yorkshire Roots; Inventors and More...





Contact Beth Northrop
ejnorth123 AT juno.com

Bowling, Bradford

"In 1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Bowling like this:
BOWLING, a village, a township, two chapelries, and a subdistrict, in the parish and district of Bradford, W. R. Yorkshire. The village stands adjacent to the Bradford and Halifax railway, 1½ mile SSW of Bradford, and has a station on the railway. The Bowling Iron-Works, which furnished many supplies to Government during the war in the Crimea, are adjacent. The township includes also the village of Dudley-Hill. Acres, 1,545. Real property, £36,691; of which £250 are in mines, and £5,300 in iron-works. ...

Bowling Hall is the seat of the Sturge family; and was the head-quarters of the Earl of Newcastle, in 1642, on occasion of his victory over Fairfax on Adwalton-Moor.

The inhabitants are employed variously in the iron-works, in the cloth trade, in stone quarries, and in coal and iron mines. The chapelries are Bowling-St. John, constituted in 1843, and Bowling-St. Stephen, constituted in 1860. Pop., 3,488 and 1,297.

The living of St. J. is a vicarage, that of St. S. a p. curacy in the dio. of Ripon. Patron of St. J., the Vicar of Bradford; of St. S.,Hardy, Esq. The church of St. J. is good; and that of St. S. was built in 1861, and is in the early decorated style, with tower and spire. An Independent chapel, in the Romanesque style, was built in 1865; and there are other dissenting chapels.-The subdistrict is conterminate with the township.



I'm not sure what I've seen on Youtube includes the Bowling area, but sadly, much of Bradford appears to be quite run down. A number of the video spoke of crime and drugs.

Broomfields was a section within Bowling

Despite the mine-workings Broomfields in 1840 still had a largely rural aspect. To the west Caledonia, Waterloo and Britannia Mills had been built alongside Bowling Beck on the boundary of Broomfields. A few collieries were still in production and in the early 1840s the Bowling Ironworks built a tramway a through Broomfields to transport coal from outlying mines to a new staithe "The Bradford Coal Depot" next to Britannia Mill.[9] In 1843 Mr G.W Addison built Broomfield's second textile mill "Hall Lane Mills". Prospect Mill was purchased from the Bowling Ironworks by the Cole, Marchant and Morley partnership, who obtained additional land for "Prospect Foundry". Mr Marchant had previously been finance manager at the Bowling Iron Works.

Prospect Foundry established a flourishing business in domestic ironware: its black iron kitchen ranges were installed in many Bradford houses of the Victorian period. It also developed an engineering business: its steam engines powered many Bradford mills and could be still found at work during the 1960s. Other foundries and engineering works soon followed. Benjamin Berry and Co set up an engineering company in a part of Prospect Mill.[10] In 1853 they built Ladywell Foundry in Hall Lane. Berry's were joined by "St Dunstan's Machine Tool Manufactury" and the Mill Lane Foundry.

Next to Prospect foundry a large area was occupied by Prospect Sawmills. The timber company had been founded in 1811 as Thorpe and Terry – later Thorpe, Terry and Schofield and from 1874 J.E Schofield. The sawmills continued working into the second half of the 20th century.

George Oddy, rope maker, was supplying haulage and winding ropes to the Bowling Iron works in 1789. Messrs. Oddy's rope walks at 235 Hall Lane continued in production into the second half of the 20th century.[11]


In 1847 The Municipal Borough of Bradford received its charter. The new borough incorporated the former townships of Bradford, Bowling, Horton and Manningham. The borough was divided into 8 wards: Manningham, North, South, East, West, Little Horton, Great Horton and Bowling. Wherever possible the new ward boundaries followed the old township boundaries. A small area of Broomfields adjacent to Croft Street was included in South Ward. The remainder became part of Bowling Ward. In 1882 Bowling Ward was split into the wards of East and West Bowling. The Broomfields district became a part of East Bowling. Throughout all these and subsequent boundary changes the name "Broomfields" has remained in use. Successive cartographers have differed as to where "Broomfields" should be centred on the map.

In 1846 construction of the West Riding Junction (later the Lancashire and Yorkshire) railway started. It was opened in 1850 with a terminus at Drake Street station (approached via Broomfields tunnel) in the centre of Bradford. Thereafter urban development in Broomfields was very rapid – as was further expansion of the railway network. The railways changed what were the perceived boundaries of Broomfields. The Lancashire and Yorkshire line became accepted as the western boundary. In 1854 the GNR opened its line from Leeds to a terminus station at Adolphus street . At the same time the GNR opened its "Bradford Avoiding Line" through the southern part of Broomfields to a junction with the L&Y line just to the south of Bowling Dyeworks. This line was soon recognised as the southern boundary. of Broomfields. These features are shown on Fig. 4 – a 6" to the mile Ordnance Survey Map surveyed in 1849, first published 1852 but updated to show new railways to 1854.

[Was there some connection with the GNR lines in Bradford and Benjamin's change in profession to that of Railway employee?]

In 1866 the L&YR built the Palma Street coal yards to the east of the main Line. In 1867 the GNR opened the "Bowling Curves Railway from a junction near Hammerton Street to a junction with the L&Y at Mill Lane. The GNR then ran its passenger trains into Drake Street, now renamed Exchange. To deal with the increased traffic the Broomfield tunnel was opened out into a wide cutting, occupying much of the area of the former Broom Closes. The area south of Croft Street became entirely given over to sidings and goods sheds. The GNR converted Adolphus Street station into a goods shed and added further coal yards and sidings. Subsequently Bradford Corporation built a new cattle market and wholesale green fish and meat markets, all served by GNR lines. In the mid 1870s work started on the Thornton Railway, with connections to the GNR and L&YR lines near Mill Lane. The line was opened in 1878 with a new station "St Dunstan's Junction" in Broomfields. By 1883 the Thornton railway had been extended through to Halifax and Keighley.[12] By this time Broomfields was almost totally surrounded by railways, sidings and goods yards and with a railway through the middle.

Census returns show that the railways and their associated works provided much employment for the people of Broomfields. . They provided another unexpected employment bonus. In 1850 a small brickworks was established next to the L&Y line to use material excavated from the Bowling-Low Moor tunnel – which had been dumped by the line side. In 1860 S. Pearson & Son re-established the "Broomfield Brickworks"[13] on a much larger scale at the same location . Successive railway works provided brick making material for the next 30 years. Other sources of supply were drawn on.

Many commercial premises were built in Broomfields in the second half of the 19th century. In 1863 Ladywell Foundry was expanded and became Ladywell Mills. At the same time Globe Mills were built on the opposite side of Hall Lane close to Hall Lane Mills. All these mills were built for renting out on a room and power basis. Ladywell usually had three main tenants, each renting one of the three mill buildings. The 1912 Street directory lists the tenants as J&C Crabtree, Ltd commission wool comber, Ladywell Slubbing & Combing Co, and J.W Firth Ltd commission wool combers. Firths are still (2014) in occupation. At the same date Globe Mills had as tenants J & W Lister & Sons, worsted yarn spinners and the Bradford Steel Pin Manufacturing Co. Ltd. Later in the 20th century Globe mills was occupied by metal manufacturing and engineering companies – but no textile companies. The same directory states that Hall Lane Mills was solely occupied by W.H Wilkinson and Son, cabinet makers, who had occupied the premises since about 1880. Another "Prospect Mill" (in Usher Street) had also abandoned textiles and was occupied by Jas. Burroughs and Sons, wood-turners. Textile industries seemed not to flourish in Broom Fields so well as engineering and the furniture and timber trades. One of the biggest industrial sites in Broomfields in 1912 was the Prospect Saw Mills (founded 1811) – next to Prospect Foundry.


The Bowling Iron Works was an iron working complex established around 1780 in the district of East Bowling part of the township and manor of Bowling, now in the southeast of Bradford in Yorkshire, England. The operation included mining coal and iron ore, smelting, refining, casting and forging to create finished products.

...Mining began in Jeremiah Rawson's estate, then extended into nearby estates as the deposits became exhausted, always mining the same beds of minerals.[5] In 1794 the company purchased from Francis Lindley Wood (owner of Bolling Hall and Lord of the Manor) the rights to 90 acres of coal and iron stone in Hall Lane, Broomfields. In 1806 the company purchased additional mineral rights to parts of Sir Francis Lindley Wood's Bowling Hall Estate .[6] The rights to other land was purchased in later years, often after extensive negotiation.[7] In 1816 the company purchased from Sir Francis all his remaining lands and mineral rights in Bowling and in 1821 purchased from him the Lordship of the Manor.

The Bowling works were selling large quantities of guns, shot and shells to the British government before 1790. Cast iron was used for guns before the invention of wrought iron, and the cast iron guns were subject to rigorous production controls and quality tests.[10] On 27 July 1796 the partners signed an agreement with Matthew Boulton and James Watt to pay royalties on the two steam engines in use at the works, and to be allowed to make additional steam engines at the works, paying royalties.[11] When Sir William Armstrong invented wrought-iron guns, some of the first coils he used were Bowling iron.[12] Bowling iron, or Best Yorkshire, became well known around the world.[5]

Steam hammers were installed at the Bowling Ironworks where the steam cylinder was bolted to the back of the hammer, thus reducing the height of the machine.[13] These were designed by John Charles Pearce, who took out a patent for his steam hammer design several years before James Nasmyth's patent expired.[14] On 14 November 1848 a new partnership was created with the name of Bowling Iron Co., confirmed by act of parliament in August 1849. The company was incorporated and registered in 1870.[9]

An 1891 description said the ironworks lay in, a sort of deep horseshoe valley, the banks which surround it consisting chiefly of shale and cinders, the accumulations of a century's workings. The whole area, enclosed by a high stone wall, is somewhat more than a mile and a half round. Looking from the counting-house at the entrance, on the right is a large waste space, with the steaming lake and cinder hills behind. At night, when live scoria and ashes glow from the sides of the latter, and the lake is lighted up by vivid and fitful gleams emitted from the blast furnaces, the scene is strange and weird-like ... one might almost fancy himself in immediate proximity to an active volcano.[15]

The plant at that time included blast furnaces and refineries used in the first stages of iron manufacture, puddling and ball furnaces with high brick or iron chimneys, a shed housing the steam hammers, steelworks, a large machine shop, boiler works, a large foundry and other workshops and buildings. A narrow gauge railway was used to move material within the works, and a line to the Great Northern Railway was used to ship the products.[16] A network of tramways brought minerals from the pits to the works, with wagons pulled by wire ropes powered by stationary engines.[10] Four large pumps were being used to keep the mines dry, with some of the water used in the ironworks.[5]

The Bowling Iron Company went into liquidation in 1898.[17] In 1903 the company was reorganized as The Bowling Iron Company. It was liquidated in 1921.[18]


By 1840 Bradford was known for having some of the most smoke-filled air in Britain. As early as 1803 an act had stated that, "Engine chimneys are to be erected of sufficient height as not to create a nuisance by the emission of smoke. All owners of engines etc. are to construct fireplaces thereof in such a manner as most effectually to destroy and consume the smoke arising therefrom." However, little was done to enforce the laws. There was a general feeling that the factories provided work, so should not be pushed too hard to reduce pollution.[19] An 1841 account said, "The condition of Bradford is dreadful. Lowmoor iron-forges most extensively spread their suffocating exhalations on the one side ... On the other side, Bowling Iron Hell (for it is one truly) casts a still denser atmosphere and sulphurous stench..."[20] The Bowling Iron Company was fined on 12 December 1874, but only for £5 with £9. 10s. costs for ten offences. The population suffered high levels of respiratory diseases, peaking in 1890 during an influenza epidemic.[19]

The method of paying the men led them into temptation of intemperance and extravagance:[21] According to H. Hartopp, manager of the Bowling Works,


Referring to John Smith's estate map of 1776 Cudworth notes that Bowling was almost devoid of trees (apart from some new planting around Bolling Hall) although place names such as Oaks Fold, Oaks Lane, The Parks, Coppice etc. suggested it was once well wooded. Cudworth laments the substitution of "Bowling" for "Bolling" but is unable to say when it occurred except that it was "early". "If in this sketch we used the modern spelling and pronunciation it will be as a concession to modern notions." (I wonder if Hall Lane suggests it was close to Bolling Hall??)

"In ancient times the township appears to have been known as Great and Little Bolling corresponding probably to the present distinctions of East Bowling and West Bowling which are generally speaking divided by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway". The distinction long predated the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, opened 1850. The traditional line of demarcation was probably the Bowling Beck and its tributary beck which arose in The Roughs, as shown on maps 1 and 4. This was close to the railway and also the route of the coal tramway from the Burras engine to Britannia Mills staithes, (shown on map 2) opened c 1840. In 1847 Bowling became one of the 8 wards of the newly created Municipal Borough of Bradford. In 1881 Bowling ward was divided into East and West Bowling wards. The ward boundary in the north was the Bowling Beck but in the south was Bolling Hall Road. Colloquial usage still recognised, and still does recognise, the traditional boundary described by Cudworth rather than the administrative boundary of 1881.

Throughout the 19th century the ironworks expanded its mining operations - and in the process developed an extensive network of tramways and narrow gauge railways from its mines to the iron works and also to staithes in Bradford. (see map 2) From 1850 these were extended across the watershed to access to reserves to the south of Bradford. The ironworks eventually had collieries as far south as Gomersal and Cleckheaton and over 20 miles of tramway. In 1854 the "Bradford Avoiding Line" was built by the GNR to link its Leed-Bradford via a junction at Hammerton Street to the L&YR line to the south of Bowling Tunnel. Later that year the Bowling Ironworks opened an extensive set of standard gauge private lines and sidings with a junction to the "Avoiding Line" at Bowling Bridge station, making the works much less dependant on its tramways and canal transport.

From about 1850 reserves in Bowling were becoming exhausted and some landholdings were sold off. This process was not straight forward as mining had rendered much of the surface too unstable for building development. Map 3 shows an area near the Parks which was so unstable it remained undeveloped until the very end of the 20th century and which still (2014) suffers from periodic shaft collapses. One of the most important land sales occurred in 1849 when Messrs Ripley and Son of the Bowling dye works purchased the freehold of the site, about 100 acres of land surrounding it (later expanded to 130 acres) and the pumping shafts of several former collieries. The pumping shafts provided a constant supply of high quality soft water to the dye works of 1.25million gallons per day with a surplus of about 0.6 million gallons per day which was distributed via Ripley's water works to domestic and other industrial consumers. At that date the Bradford Waterworks company (purchased by the Borough Council in 1854) could only provide a very intermittent supply of about 0.5 million gallons per day. In 1854, the dye works, like the ironworks built its own standard gauge internal private railway with a junction with the GNR near Hall Lane.

In addition to scattering the landscape with spoil heaps and rendering the ground too unstable for building the ironworks had a disastrous effect on the atmosphere. A constant pall of smoke and foul smelling fumes hung over the works and surrounding area "The Bowling Hell" with a high incidence of respiratory diseases. Within the works a huge smoking spoil heap "the Bowling Coke Hill" grew continuously until the ironworks ceased production in 1906. It continued to burn and smoke for many years. It towered nearly 250feet above Wakefield Road and dwarfed the nearby St John's church. In the second world war an anti aircraft bunker was built on its summit. It was not cleared until the late 1950s when Hepworth and Grandages acquired the site and levelled it to expand their engineering works. The iron works also used the area north of Lower Lane as additional tipping space; eventually it was covered by a plateau of slag and clinker about 50 feet deep. Clearance for re-development has only recently started. Map 4 shows the locations on these sites.


Was he butcher to Bolling Hall or to the workers of the iron works or to everyone? It seems the iron workers
might not have the money to keep a butcher in a going concern. By 1851 how close was the home of the
recently married Charles Benjamin Webster & Eliza (or Elizabeth) Ann Parker " living in their own home 
at 73 Wakefield Road, Bradford". It could have been very close to their Hall Lane residence.


The Bollings of Bolling Hall are descendants of the Thorntons.

John Paley Bought out Thomas Mason in 1834 He owned  the Hall for many years, but none of his
family ever lived there.



Tour of Bowling Hall




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